SSB: What Is Bitcoin – History, Nomenclature, How It Works, Pros & Cons

What Is Bitcoin – History, How It Works, Pros & Cons

Bitcoin is a virtual currency, or cryptocurrency, that’s controlled by a decentralized network of users and isn’t directly subject to the whims of central banking authorities or national governments. Bitcoin is by far the most popular and widely used out of hundreds of cryptocurrencies in active use today– the closest equivalent to traditional currencies.

Like traditional currencies, Bitcoin has value relative to other currencies and physical goods. Whole Bitcoin units can be subdivided into decimals representing smaller units of value. Currently, the smallest Bitcoin unit is the Satoshi, or 0.00000001 Bitcoin. The Satoshi can’t be broken into smaller units. However, Bitcoin’s source code is structured to allow for future subdivisions beyond this level, should the currency’s value appreciate to the point that it’s deemed necessary.

Bitcoin is the most versatile cryptocurrency around. It can be used to purchase goods from an ever-growing number of merchants who accept Bitcoin payments. It can be exchanged with other private users as consideration for services performed or to settle outstanding debts. It can be swapped for other currencies, both traditional and virtual, on electronic exchanges that function similar to forex exchanges. And, unfortunately, it can be used to facilitate illicit activity, such as the purchase of illegal drugs & black money.

For all its promise, it is subject to wild value fluctuations. Despite the pronouncements of its proponents, it’s not a legitimate investment or trading vehicle.

How Bitcoin Works

Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency, meaning it’s supported by a source code that uses highly complex algorithms to prevent unauthorized duplication or creation of Bitcoin units. The code’s underlying principles, known as cryptography, are based on advanced mathematical and computer engineering principles. It’s virtually impossible to break Bitcoin’s source code and manipulate the currency’s supply.


User Anonymity

  • Intense privacy protections built into Bitcoin’s source code.
  • The system is designed to publicly record Bitcoin transactions and other relevant data without revealing the identity of the individuals or groups involved.
  • Users are identified by public keys, or numerical codes that identify them to other users, and sometimes pseudonymous handles or usernames.
  • Additional protections allow users to further conceal the source and flow of Bitcoin. For instance, special computer programs available to all Bitcoin users, called mixing services, obscure the source of the owner’s holdings.

Bitcoin Exchanges

  • Bitcoin exchanges allow users to exchange Bitcoin units for legitimate currencies, such as the U.S. dollar and euro, at variable exchange rates.
  • Allow exchange of Bitcoin units for other cryptocurrencies.
  • Bitcoin exchanges ensure that the Bitcoin market remains liquid, setting their value relative to traditional currencies – and allowing holders to profit from speculation on fluctuations in that value.
  • Bitcoin’s value is subject to wild swings – weekly moves of 50% in either direction have occurred. Such swings are unheard of among stable currencies.

Block Chain

  • Bitcoin’s block chain is vital to its function.
  • It is a public, distributed ledger of all prior Bitcoin transactions, which are stored in groups known as blocks.
  • Every node of Bitcoin’s software network – the server farms and terminals run by individuals or groups known as MINERS.
  • Their efforts to produce new Bitcoin units result in the recording and authentication of Bitcoin transactions, and the periodic creation of new blocks & contains an identical record of Bitcoin’s block chain.
  • Because new Bitcoin transactions constantly occur, there’s no predetermined length at which the block chain will stop growing.
  • On an average, miners create a new block chain, which includes all prior transactions and a new transaction block, every 10 minutes.
  • Every two weeks, Bitcoin’s source code is designed to adjust to the amount of mining power devoted to creating new block chains, preserving the 10-minute average creation interval.
  • Bitcoin’s block chain is the sole arbiter of Bitcoin ownership. No complete record exists anywhere else.
  • The block chain also serves as a payment processing system, like Visa or PayPal, with the miners functioning as the system’s employees.

A Bitcoin transaction occurs once it is added to the block chain, at which point it becomes irreversible – unlike traditional payment processors.

Private Keys

  • Every Bitcoin user has at least one private key (basically, a password), which is a whole number between 1 and 78 digits in length.
  • Individual users can have multiple anonymous handles, each with its own private key.
  • Keys confirm their owners’ identities and allow them to spend or receive Bitcoin.
  • Without keys, users can’t complete transactions & can’t access their holdings.
  • When a key is lost for good, the corresponding holdings can’t be recovered.


  • Actual Bitcoin units are stored in “wallets”.
  • These are secure cloud storage locations with special information confirming their owners.
  • These are vulnerable to hackin
  • The largest and most notorious Bitcoin hack involved wallets held by Mt. Gox, a Japanese Bitcoin exchange that shut down after hackers stole hundreds of millions of dollars in Bitcoin (in contemporary valuations) from its supposedly secure servers.
  • Hackers often target public wallets that store users’ private keys, enabling them to spend the stolen Bitcoin.
  • Unlike keys, they can’t be stored on paper.


  • Miners play a vital role in the Bitcoin ecosystem.
  • As keepers of the block chain, they keep the entire Bitcoin community honest and indirectly support the currency’s value.
  • Miners are individuals or cooperative organizations with access to powerful computers, often stored at remote, privately owned “farms.” They perform incredibly complex mathematical tasks in an effort to mint new Bitcoin, which they then keep or exchange for normal currency.
  • Bitcoin’s source code harnesses this computing power to collect, record, and organize previously unverified transactions, adding a new block to the block chain about every 10 minutes.
  • Each time a new block chain is created, a predetermined number of fresh Bitcoin are minted. Miners are “rewarded” these Bitcoin for their effort and often also receive transaction fees paid by buyers.
  • Sellers have an incentive to charge transaction fees, which usually amount to less than 1% of the transaction amount.

Finite Supply

Bitcoin’s own source code places a strict limit on the number of Bitcoin units that can ever exist: 21 million. This is achieved by slowing, over time, the rate at which the creation of new block chain copies produces new Bitcoin. Every four years or so, this rate halves. The last Bitcoin is projected to spring into being sometime around 2140 – that is, if the currency still exists and people still care enough to mine it. After that, miners’ sole compensation will be Bitcoin transaction fees.

This enforced scarcity is a key point of distinction between Bitcoin and traditional fiat currencies, which central banks produce by decree, and supply of which is theoretically unlimited. In this regard, Bitcoin has more in common with goldthan the U.S. dollar.

Origins & History of Bitcoin

Bitcoin’s origins date back to the early 1980s, when the algorithms that support modern cryptocurrency were first developed. Its closest predecessor was Bit Gold, a proto-cryptocurrency developed in the late 1990s by Nick Szabo.

Bitcoin’s Birth and Early Development

The first public record of Bitcoin dates to October 2008, when a pseudonymous person or organization known as Satoshi Nakamoto published a white paper with the technical outlines for a new, decentralized cryptocurrency. Nakamoto’s identity remains unknown,

Advantages of Using Bitcoin

  • Greater Liquidity Relative to Other Cryptocurrencies
  • Increasingly Wide Acceptance as a Payment Method: Hundreds of merchants accept Bitcoin payments.
  • International Transactions Easier Than Regular Currencies
  • Generally Lower Transaction Fees
  • Anonymity and Privacy Relative to Traditional Currencies: As against Traditional Currencies, Bitcoin’s built-in privacy protections allow users to completely separate their Bitcoin accounts from their public personas. While it’s possible to track Bitcoin flows between users, it’s very difficult to figure out who those users really are.
  • Independence From Government Control and Creators:Bitcoin isn’t created or controlled by any state entity, such as a central bank. Since it exists outside any political system, though the use is illegal it is difficult for governments to freeze or seize Bitcoin units, whether in the course of legitimate criminal investigations.
  • Built-In Scarcity: 
    • Central banks can create new units of traditional currency at will, and often do.
    • Bitcoin’s built-in scarcity feature – only 21 million will ever exist – is likely to support its long-term value against traditional currencies. Bitcoin’s scarcity supposedly imbues the currency with intrinsic value – similar to gold and other precious metals.

Disadvantages of Using Bitcoin

  • It is an Illegal Currency
  • Exposure to Bitcoin-Specific Scams and Fraud
  • Black Market Activity Bitcoin remains attractive to criminals and gray market participants.
  • Susceptible to High Price Volatility
  • No Chargebacks or Refunds
  • Potential to Be Replaced by Superior Cryptocurrency
  • Environmental Ills of Bitcoin Mining. Bitcoin mining consumes vast amounts of electricity.

Final Word

The list of merchants that accept Bitcoin is steadily lengthening. You can now buy plane tickets (Expedia), furniture (Overstock), and web publishing services (WordPress) with Bitcoin.

However, before you rush out and cash in your dollars for Bitcoin, remember that Bitcoin has a long way to go before it’s a legitimate currency on par with the U.S. dollar, euro, or pound. And despite the seductiveness of cryptocurrency as a means of exchange, there’s no guarantee that Bitcoin – or any other decentralized, virtual currency not controlled by a national bank – will ever be a viable alternative to traditional  currencies.

Some experts believe that, in the coming decades, national governments will rework their currencies with state-sanctioned means of exchange that have some cryptocurrency features, like built-in scarcity and virtually impenetrable counterfeiting protections. Others believe that traditional currency and cryptocurrency will continue to exist in parallel, but that cryptocurrencies will fail to expand beyond the niche currently occupied by gold and other precious metals – that of an alternative investment whose primary purpose is to hedge against inflation.

Did You Know: As Bitcoin grows more valuable (albeit amid gut-wrenching market volatility) and more commonly accepted, so too does the business of mining Bitcoin. But it comes at a notable cost: the consumption of vast amounts of electricity, often powered by non-renewable sources. According to the Bitcoin Energy Consumption Index, Bitcoin mining consumed approximately 51 trillion terawatts of electricity per year as of February 2018. That figure has risen steadily and inexorably over time, irrespective of day-to-day market movements, prompting policymakers to take a closer look at Bitcoin’s carbon footprint.


Nuclear Agni V Missile+Comparison

India’s strategic forces test fired latest version Agni V on Feb 20, 2018 on medium to intermediate range nuclear capable ballistic missile. The test was conducted from Dr. Abdul Kalam Island, Odisha as a part of annual programmes to test the combat readiness of Indian Army missile forces.


In Indian history, Mysorean rockets were the first iron cased rockets that were successfully deployed for military use. These were used by Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan successfully against the British East India Company in 18th

Post-independence, Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) was formed in 1958 for military’s research and developmentunder the control of Ministry of Defence. The Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) was launched in 1982-83 by the Indian Government which saw the projects of:

Prithvi (Short range surface to surface missile)

Trishul(short range surface to air missile)

Aakash (Medium range surface to air missile)

Nag(Third generation anti-tank missile)

Agni-I(Agni missile was later separated from the IGMDP due to its strategic importance)

After India test-fired the first Prithvi missile in 1988, and the Agni Missile in 1989, the Missile Technology Control Regime decided to restrict missile technologies to India. To counter this move, IGMDP with the help of DRDO laboratories made India capable of making all the technologies indigenously over time.

After the successful competition of IGMDP on 8 Jan 2008, India now develops all its current and future missile as independent projects, with private companies and foreign partners (like Brahmos with Russia).

Dhanush is the naval version of Prithvi missile. It can carry payloads up to 500 kg and target both land-based and sea-based targets.

The K family of missiles is a series of submarine launched ballistic missiles developed by India. They are reported to faster, lighter and stealthier than their Agni missiles counterparts. Example: K-15 (or Sagarika), K-4, K-5 and K-6.

Difference between Ballistic & Cruise Missiles

BALLISTIC MISSILE is a missile with a high, arching trajectory, which is initially powered and guided but falls under gravity on its target.

CRUISE MISSILE is a low-flying missile which is guided to its target by an on-board computer. Modern cruise missiles can travel at supersonic or subsonic speeds. Supersonic travel is rate of travel of an object that exceeds the speeds of sound (Mach 1 = 343m/s).

Example: Tomahawk (United States), Nirbhay (India) and Brahmos (India). 

Brahmos is the fastest supersonic cruise missile in the world with a speed of Mach 2.8 – 3 at present. Russia supplies 65 % of its components including its ramjet engine. Brahmos II with a speed of Mach 7-8 is currently under development.

Nirbhay is a long range, all-weather subsonic cruise missile designed and developed in India by DRDO. It can carry conventional and nuclear warheads.

  • India is now a member of three export control regimes
  1. the Missile Technology Control Regime (since 2016),
  2. Wassenaar Arrangement (since December 2017) and
  3. Australia Group (since January 2018).
  • Biological and Chemical Weapons Conventions have also been signed by India.

But, India has not signed Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty and Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. 

Specifications of  Agni missiles (long range nuclear-capable surface to surface ballistic missile).

Ballistic Missile Weight (kg) Payload






Type of range Operational range (in km)
Agni-I 12,000 1.0 15 1.0 Medium 700-900
Agni-II 16,000 0.75-1.0 21 1.0 Medium 2,000-3,500
Agni-III 44,000 2.0-2.5 17 2.0 Intermediate 3,500-5,000
Agni-IV 17,000 0.8-1.0 20 Intermediate 3000-4000
Agni-V 50,000 1.5 17.5 2.0 Intercontinental Over 5,000

(Under development)

55,000 1.0 1.1 Intercontinental 8,000-10,000
  1. India has a second use (no first-use) nuclear policywhich means it will use it only when an enemy does on it. But for that a deterrence mechanismis needed which is a strategy intended to dissuade an enemy from taking an action not yet started. This is done by showing one’s capability and strategy.
  2. The Agni missileshave an advanced high-accuracy navigation system —Inertial Navigation System that uses a Computer, Motion Sensors And Rotation Sensors to continuously calculate the orientation and velocity of moving object.
  3. Agni II uses a Two-Stage Solid Propellant developed by Advanced Systems Laboratory along with other DRDO laboratories.It is integrated by Bharat Dynamics Limited, Hyderabad.
  4. The lesser the distance travelled by a missile, the more payload it can carry.
  5. The first prototype of Agni-II was launched on 11 April 1999. A launch on 7 April 2013 was conducted by Strategic Forces Command. It was inducted into the Indian Army in 2004.
  6. Agni-II was upgraded to a nuclear warheadafter the Pokhran-2 test in 1998.
  7. The recent successful trial of Agni-V on 20 Feb 2018 reconfirms Indian Army’s readiness. It has also shown an accuracy within (30-40) m of rangein hitting the target.
  8. With rising challenges from China and Pakistan, it is important to test the missiles and remove any shortcomings. Technical problems, for example, have occurred in some of the previous launches in the second stage when the warhead separates.
  9. With Agni-V, Indiahas entered into the list of countries possessing Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM). Other countries in the list are Russia, United States, France, North Korea and China.

An ICBM is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of 5,500 km. It is primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery. Similarly, conventional, chemical, and biological weapons can also be delivered with varying effectiveness.

  • Russia, China and United States have one of the world’s most powerful missiles that can travel between 10,000-15,000 km. Examples:
Missile Type Maximum Range (km) Country
R 36 16,000 Russia
Dongfeng 5 and 41 15,000 China
Hwasong-15 13,000 North Korea
RS-26 Rubezh 12,600 Russia
LGM-30 Minuteman III 13,000 United States
Trident I 12,000 United States
M 51 10,000 France
Agni V 8,000 India

India’s Concerns

  1. For India, the concern presently is China which is way ahead in missile technologyand capability and has a battle-ready army. Pakistan is also improving its arsenal. In response to Agni V, Pakistan is working on ICBM which is said to be working on ICBM ‘Taimur’. Shaheen-III (range of 2750 km), Shaheen-II (range of 2,500 km) and Shaheen-I (range of 750 km) are ballistic missiles of Pakistan.


India has travelled a long way since the development of its IGMDP programme in indigenously developing its missiles technology by the help of DRDO laboratories. With missiles like Agni, Brahmos, etc India has developed a good deterrence mechanism. But, China which has seen standoff with India in recent past is way ahead in these technologies. So recent successful testing of Agni II is a good move and India should keep its readiness and efficiency in missile striking capabilities on track with its Strategic Forces Command.

Price Capping of Stents

National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA) has capped the ceiling prices of drug eluting stents (DES) and bio-reabsorb able  vascular scaffolds (BVS) at Rs 29,600 and bare metal stents (BMS) at Rs 29,600 and bare metal stents (BMS) at Rs 7,260. Including VAT, these stents are expected to cost Rs 31,080 and Rs 7,623, respectively. 

The government has made it clear that companies, distributors and hospitals have no choice but to comply with its order slashing prices of cardiac stents by over 75%.

Companies, distributors and hospitals found violating NPPA’s order by overcharging patients for the devices would be penalized.

What is a Stent?

A coronary stent is a wire mesh tube used to clear blockages in coronary arteries and prevent heart attacks. It is inserted into clogged arteries to keep the blood flowing well. The clog is crushed with a balloon and the device inserted.


  1. Saving lives: Stents save thousands of life every year globally. It is a medical boon that should be made readily available to people so that they have a chance at surviving cardiac arrests with the least amount of expense. In India, where majority of the population is below poverty line, this is a positive step in the right direction.
  2. The decision, expected to make the life-saving devices more affordable, also signals a shift in the way stent suppliers will operate in the country.
  3. With far higher chances of survival, stent is a crucial option for patients and capped prices have helped patients afford it without burning a bigger hole in their pockets.
  4. While some companies said they are still figuring out how they may adapt to the decision, others are already considering cost-cutting options like discarding the middlemen who supplied their products to hospitals.
  5. According to Indian stent company Sahajanand Medical Technologies, one of the biggest cost in this business is the cost associated with the supply chain and most of the margins made by stent makers goes into paying the distributor. The Stent manufactures can get a drug distribution license to save on the working capital cost.
  6. Stents in any case are supposed to be used in emergency angioplasty instead of making it the only option.  Capping of prices will curb unnecessary use of stents



  1. The government should facilitate innovation in medical technology, not regulate it.
  2. There’s enough and more to be done in designing devices which will help doctors in diagnosis and treatment.
  3. Companies are ready to pump in millions of dollars for research & development, so it’s only natural they’ll price their products with an eye on offsetting their expenditure and ploughing back profit for more research.
  4. It’s up to the government to step in with subsidies and take the burden of patients. The rising cost of healthcare is a huge concern but innovation shouldn’t be put on the back burner because of it.
  5. Expansion of price controls on medical devices will not resolve the country’s long-term health challenges and can lead to shortages, delays in the introduction of new devices, and quality concerns for price-controlled devices.
  6. Capping prices would do more harm than good for achieving the goals of the government, patients and the industry.
  7. Coronary stents have halved the number of patients dying from heart attacks and implantable cardiac defibrillators have raised the chances of surviving a sudden cardiac arrest from 5% to 98%.
  8. Arbitrary price restriction will discourage innovators and manufacturersfrom coming up with newer generations of stents, thus limiting the choice of doctors and patients alike.
  9. Patients do not need access to any stent, but access to the best quality stent.
  10. Patient choice and clinical outcomes will be negatively
  11. Price capping will increase the entry of inferior quality, outdated products in the market, resulting in substandard care to patients.
  12. Policy decisions should be driven by patients’ need for quality and safety. Affordability at the cost of patient access to quality is not desirable in the long-term interest of the patient.
  13. The journey of the Indian medical fraternity towards global recognition might slow down.

The government should aim at improving access with a focus on quality and efficacy of medical devices. While making such policy decisions, the government should adopt a consultative approach and involve all the stakeholders — Indian researchers, clinicians, local and global device manufacturers — to ensure best results and a progressive way !!!


A Murderous Game: Blue Whale

Blue Whale is a murderous online social media game which entices young people to take on challenges instructed by an online administrator called the “Master” over a 50-day period.

It is a murderous game and needs to be banned by the government. But where is the responsibility of PARENTS, SOCIETY and the MEDIA???


1. Emotional support

Children need emotional support to be empowered enough to reject games such as Blue Whale. Common signs friends and family need to look out for include being withdrawn from social gatherings, persistent depression and unhappiness, crying and irritability, worries that stop them from carrying out daily tasks. Angry outbursts, problems in eating or sleeping and lack of interest in activities enjoyed previously are also warning signs.

2. Consult a Specialist

Seek out a medical expert to speak to your child and treat injuries that may result from teens self harming themselves. Specialists such as counsellors and therapists could also be helpful.

3.Talk To the Teachers

Teachers are increasingly aware of self harm and mental illness faced by the child. The school should be able to provide a detailed understanding of how the child is coping and name members of the staff who may be able to help. This could also include the school      nurse, counsellor or class teacher.

4. Clear communication matters

Clearly communicating with your child and letting him/her know that you care for their wellbeing is important. Take out the time to not just talk, but actively listen to your child as well. Young internet users with depression and thoughts of self harm may use the internet’s seamless communication to perpetuate suicidal behaviour. Communicating well and clearly can make a difference to the life and well being of the child.

5. Increase Web Safety

Parents and educators can also help youth surf the web safely and prevent them from engaging in online abuse through web safeguards. Monitor the sites your child visits by searching the web history. Keep tabs on your child’s surfing habits and encourage young people to openly talk about things that concern them, online or otherwise.

6. Strengthening the teen-parent bond

You need to be there as a parent for your child. Check for withdrawal from social activities or early warning signs that abuse could be experienced. Signs of self harm can be linked to the challenges of the Blue Whale Game. Most children who take part in this game may send out a cry for help before harming themselves. You need to step in and safeguard your child through timely interventions and continuous interaction that allows them to express their feelings, thoughts and concerns.


1. Counselling and social support

Those in need of help need you to be open minded and understanding. Society needs to reduce the stigma towards teen mental health issues and help those who are suffering. Depression has social stigma attached to it, leaving the child affected feeling scared of rejection or judgmental attitudes from others. Mental health issues can affect anyone from any age or background. One of the most common signs of this disorder is feeling trapped into making wrong choices and taking part in the Blue Whale game could be one of this.

2. Laws in place to protect teens

By proliferating social media groups with vulnerable youth, the game entices youth to complete 50 self harming tasks and challenge their limits. Teens across US, India, Brazil, and other nations have faced the ultimate consequences of this game. This game was started in Russia where it has already claimed the lives of many youngsters. Cases of suicide have been reported in Argentina and Britain too. Governments and society need to have laws and sanctions in place to block such deadly games.

3. Breaking through the supportive mask

Bad academic performance or being treated badly by peers can make children vulnerable and these games, with their supposedly supportive administrators talk juveniles to mutilating themselves or ending their lives. Society needs to change the perception that these games are for a positive purpose. The aim should be to denigrate these killer games and condemn them across the community.

III. Media Responsibility

1. Coverage of sensitive topics in responsible way

The media often sensationalises cases and glorifies violence. There needs to be a change in the way online manipulation is depicted in movies, games and other mass media. Topics that are sensitive such as poor exam performance, peer pressure and bullying need to be covered in a way that is sensitive and understands the world of the teen rather than subjecting them to further stigma.

2. Positive role models for children

Philipp Budeikin, a former psychology student who was expelled from his university and imprisoned for three years, perpetuated this deadly game. The Russian youth were the first to be targeted by Budeikin and his team and this twisted game perpetuated a very wrong role model for the children to follow in the form of the murderous administrators of the game. Media needs to portray positive role models who stand up to pressures and work their way through life’s issues with equanimity and confidence. Giving youngsters a positive role model they can look up to can serve as a powerful countercurrent to lethal games like Blue Whale.

3. Socially responsible depiction of such games

Social media sites need to have stricter laws in place to ensure socially responsible depiction of such lethal games. The Blue Whale game deserves to be exposed and unmasked for what it is – a murderous attack on young teens using mind manipulation. The media has an important role to play in depicting such games in stark and real light, so youngsters don’t glorify people like Budeikin and take their own lives.

Close to 310 deaths have been linked to this deadly game. With the advent of social media and online streaming, the internet has become a source of escape for youngsters. But unfortunately, they are likely to be targets of online manipulation with lethal consequences such as Blue Whale. Curated to seek out teens who want to be accepted and liked, this game offers rewards for successful challenges completed. Society, parents and the media need to join hands to safeguard the youth against such deadly games.

Indo China Relations: Another Problem

According to the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), over 16 million people have been affected by monsoon flooding across India, Nepal and Bangladesh. This is fast becoming one of the most serious humanitarian crises this region has seen in many years and urgent action is needed to meet the growing needs of millions of people affected by these devastating floods. In India over 11 million people are affected by floods in four states across the north of the country.

Hinting at China’s responsibility for the current spate of floods across the northeastern States, India has accused Beijing of not sharing any water-related data about the Himalayan rivers in the current year.


The Brahmaputra and the Sutlej are the two major trans-border rivers that enter India directly from China. There is an existing mechanism named India-China Expert-Level mechanism started in 2006 to share hydrological data during the flood season for Brahmaputra and Satluj rivers. Under the MoUs, the hydrological data is to be shared between May 15 to October 15 every year. However, the same has not been shared this year.



  • China’s refusal so far to share the data with India this year comes amid a two-month-long stand-off between Indian and Chinese troops on the Himalayan plateau of Doklam, which is claimed by both Thimphu and Beijing. The face-off is the longest at the border between India and China in three decades.
  • The breakdown of the mechanism for sharing river water data is the latest in a series of sparks threatening to set alight a carefully managed relationship that has allowed India and China to simultaneously emerge economic powerhouses despite a border dispute they once warred over.

This highlights the need for Regional cooperation to control floods.



Behavioural Skills

• The importance of honing THE Behavioural Skills is growing day by day.
• In the corporate world there is a marked transition from being ‘generic’ and ‘good to have’ to being a ‘pre-requisite’ requirement.
• The shift in perception is not without reason.
• Organisations across the globe have realised that professionals with just technical skills only partly complement the essentials of being a ‘complete professional’.
• It is now believed that the most successful people in a company are not the ones who possess the best technical skills but those who manage their emotions as well as those of their co-workers – the best!

Benefits: The Behavioural Skills Workshop will enable the students to:

  • Identify behavioural skills required for promoting competence in various departments
  • Appreciate the importance of building a positive attitude and emotional intelligence to develop a positive work culture in the organization
  • Appreciate and apply the principles of interpersonal communication
  • Learn to develop strategies for dealing with stress and behaviour related problems

Tips & techniques to deal with employees:-

  • Under Stress
  • Having time related difficulties
  • Not able to integrate into the organization
  • Having issues with working in teams
  • Having attitude related problems
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